Tuesday 25 February 2020
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Tech Terms – You Should Know!

Tech Terms – You Should Know!   What Tech Words do you use? Here are few you might not know!

Port Mirroring

Port mirroring is an approach to monitoring network traffic that involves forwarding a copy of each packet from one network switch port to another.

Port mirroring enables the administrator to keep close track of switch performance by placing a protocol analyzer on the port that’s receiving the mirrored data. The analyzer captures and evaluates the data without affecting the client on the original port.

A network administrator can use port mirroring as a diagnostic or debugging tool. It can be especially useful when fending off an attack.

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)

Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a security exploit which targets Web sites that accept user input but don’t filter that input for common characters or strings used in scripts.

A vulnerable web page, which may be referred to as an XSS hole, allows the attacker to insert malicious code into a user input field. If a visiting client’s browser is not up-to-date with the latest XSS filters, the malicious code will be delivered unfiltered and the browser will execute the malicious script when it loads the page. Typical XSS exploits allow the attacker to hijack the user’s session, redirect the user to a malicious website, manipulate what is displayed in the victim’s browser or steal data and credentials.


Web server applications for large sites that aggregate code and generate Web pages dynamically are most vulnerable to cross-site scripting exploits because it can be difficult to validate code from multiple sources in a timely manner. To protect against cross-site scripting exploits, experts recommend that enterprises and individuals make sure they are using the latest version of their browser.


Whaling is a type of fraud that targets a specific end user such as a C-level executive, database administrator or celebrity.

As with any phishing endeavor, the goal of whaling is to trick the target into disclosing personal or corporate information through social engineering, email spoofing and content spoofing efforts.


The term whaling is a play-on-words, reflecting the idea that an important person may also be referred to as a “big fish.”

Certified Secure Software Lifecycle Professional

CSSLP (certified secure software lifecycle professional) is a certification from (ISC)² that focuses on application security within the software development lifecycle (SDLC).

Launched in 2008, the CSSLP certification is designed for coders, project managers, IT analysts or engineers involved in the SDLC. The certification’s curriculum focuses on application vulnerabilities, risk and compliance issues that arise during the development lifecycle and is broken down into eight domains: Secure Software Concepts, Secure Software Requirements, Software Design, Secure Software Implementation/Coding, Secure Software Testing, Software Acceptance, Software Deployment, Operations, Maintenance and Disposal, and Supply Chain and Software Acquisition.

CSSLP is intended to help candidates validate their expertise in application security, be able to handle application vulnerabilities better and demonstrate a working knowledge of application security.

In order to be considered for the CSSLP certification, candidates must have at least four years cumulative paid full-time work experience in at least one of the eight domains of the CSSLP. Alternatively, candidates can substitute a year of this work experience with a four-year college degree in a related field.

The CSSLP exam takes four hours to complete and consists of 175 multiple choice questions. Candidate need to achieve a minimum of 700 out of 1000 points to pass the exam and gain the certification.

Predictive Coding

Predictive coding is the use of keyword search, filtering and sampling to automate portions of an e-discovery document review. The goal of predictive coding is to reduce the number of irrelevant and non-responsive documents that need to be reviewed manually.

Predictive coding software uses a mathematical model and artificial intelligence programming to scan electronic documents and locate data that is relevant to a legal case. The software, which is capable of learning from its mistakes, first reviews a sample cluster of documents that have been tagged and categorized manually by a human legal team. The predictive coding program is then given a new set of documents and asked to identify which documents are relevant and should be reviewed by humans. The legal team then reviews the software’s decisions to determine whether an acceptable level of confidence has been achieved.

Should the software’s tagging and categorization fail to demonstrate an acceptable level of confidence, the teaching process is repeated until the software learns what is required. Because the software speeds up the review process, but still requires human input, predictive coding may also be referred to as technology-assisted review.


STIX (Structured Threat Information eXpression) is a standardized XML programming language for conveying data about cybersecurity threats in a common language that can be easily understood by humans and security technologies.

Designed for broad use, there are several core use cases for STIX. First, it is used by threat analysts to review cyberthreats and threat-related activity. Threat analysts also use STIX to identify patterns that could indicate cyberthreats. Any sort of decision maker or operations personnel may use STIX data to help facilitate cyberthreat response activities, including prevention, detection and response. The final core use for STIX is the sharing of cyber threat information within an organization and with outside partners or communities that benefit from the information.

STIX can be used manually or programmatically. Manual use requires an XML editor, but no additional tools. Programmatic use requires Python and Java bindings, Python APIs and utilities. Bindings and related tools to help security analysts process and work with STIX are open source on Github.

STIX, which was originally sponsored by the office of Cybersecurity and Communications within the United States Department of Homeland Security, has been transitioned to OASIS, a non-profit consortium that seeks to advance the development, convergence and adoption of open standards for the Internet.

IoT security

IoT security is the area of endeavor concerned with safeguarding connected devices and networks in the Internet of Things (IoT).

The Internet of Things involves the increasing prevalence of objects and entities – known, in this context as things — provided with unique identifiers and the ability to automatically transfer data over a network. Much of the increase in IoT communication comes from computing devices and embedded sensor systems used in industrial machine-to-machine (M2M) communication, smart energy grids, home and building automation, vehicle to vehicle communication and wearable computing devices.

The main problem is that because the idea of networking appliances and other objects is relatively new, security has not always been a priority during product design. IoT products are often sold with old and unpatched embedded operating systems and software. Furthermore, purchasers often fail to change the default passwords on devices — or if they do change them, fail to select sufficiently strong passwords.

Many experts recommend that if an IoT device needs to be directly accessible over the Internet, it should be segmented into its own network and have network access restricted. The network segment should then be monitored to identify potential anomalous traffic, and action should be taken if there is a problem.

Security experts have warned of the potential risk of large numbers of unsecured devices connecting to the Internet since the IoT concept was first proposed in the late 1990s. In December of 2013, a researcher at Proofpoint, an enterprise security firm, discovered the first IoT botnet. According to Proofpoint, more than 25 percent of the botnet was made up of devices other than computers, including smart TVs, baby monitors and other household appliances.

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